Ammonium chloride is used off label and given by mouth to treat metabolic alkalosis, struvite stones, and certain toxicities occasionally in small animals and more often in large animals. The most common side effects include pain at the injection site or stomach upset if given by mouth. Do not use in pets with severe liver, kidney, heart, or lung disease. If a negative reaction occurs, please call your veterinary office.
Amoxicillin is given by mouth and is used on and off label to treat certain bacterial infections in a variety of species. Common side effects include gastrointestinal effects such as lack of appetite, vomiting, and diarrhea. Do not use in pets that are allergic to it or other penicillins, cephalosporins, or other beta-lactam antibiotics, or in rabbits, guinea pigs, chinchillas, hamsters, or other small mammals. If a negative reaction occurs, please call your veterinary office.
Amoxicillin/Clavulanic acid is a synthetic penicillin-type antibiotic used to treat infections caused by gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. This medication may be used to treat urinary tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections and periodontal (gum) disease caused by susceptible organisms. The clavulanic acid is a beta-lactamase inhibitor; it has been added to the amoxicillin to protect the antibiotic from certain enzymes that may destroy the amoxicillin before it can kill the bacteria.
Ampicillin is an antibacterial medication given by injection or by mouth and is used on or off label to treat certain infections. Side effects include allergic reactions or gastrointestinal upset, and neurological signs when given in high doses. Ampicillin use is contraindicated in pets allergic to penicillins and in rabbits, guinea pigs, chinchillas, or hamsters. If a negative reaction occurs, please call your veterinary office.
Amyloidosis occurs when amyloid proteins are deposited outside of cells in various tissues and organs causing tissue and organ dysfunction. It is uncommon in cats, except for Abyssinians, Siamese, Burmese, Tonkinese, Devon Rex, and Oriental Shorthair breeds. Signs depend on the organs involved, but kidney involvement is most common. If kidneys are involved signs include mouth ulcers, weight loss, vomiting, and dehydration. For cats with liver involvement, signs include weakness, pale gum color, distended abdomen, rapid heart rate, rapid breathing, abdominal pain, and collapse. There is no specific medication for the treatment of amyloidosis in cats, with treatment focusing on kidney support.
Cats have a pair of anal sacs, one located on each side of the anus between the external and internal anal sphincter muscles. The sacs are lined with modified sweat glands called anal glands.
The anal sacs are two small pouches located on either side of the anus at approximately the four o'clock and eight o'clock positions. The walls of the sac produce a foul smelling fluid which is released whenever the cat passes a bowel movement. The anal sacs or their ducts can become inflamed or infected due to a variety of causes. Most cats will respond well to pain relief medications and antibiotics (for several days until the swelling and inflammation have subsided. If a cat has several episodes of anal sac disease, and diet or supplements do not relieve the problem, the anal sacs can be removed surgically.
Anemia is a medical term referring to a reduced number of circulating red blood cells, hemoglobin, or both. It is not a specific disease but rather it is the result of some other disease process or condition. The most easily observed and common clinical sign of anemia is a loss of the normal pink color of the gums. Several tests are performed on blood samples to diagnose anemia. If your cat's anemia is so severe that it is life threatening, a blood transfusion will be needed.
The word anesthesia comes from the Greek meaning "lack of sensation". Anesthesia is accomplished by administering drugs that depress nerve function. With general anesthesia, the patient is made unconscious for a short period. During this unconscious state, there is muscular relaxation and a complete loss of pain sensation.
The pupil constricts or dilates (enlarges) according to the amount of light that enters the eyes, with both pupils normally dilating in dim light and constricting in bright light. Anisocoria is a condition in which the pupils of the cat's eyes are different sizes. Anisocoria is a sign of an underlying disease condition and therefore there are several different causes. Your veterinarian will begin by conducting a physical examination of your cat, including a detailed examination of the structures of the eye. The treatment and prognosis of anisocoria depends entirely on the underlying cause of the condition, and specific treatment will be tailored specifically to the diagnosis.