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Diagnosis + English

  • DNA is a large complex molecule that carries the genetic information or genetic code of an organism. All common forms of life, such as viruses, bacteria, plants, and animals carry a copy of their own genetic code in each of their cells. Each organism has a unique section of DNA that is just like a fingerprint. DNA-PCR is often used to detect the presence of infectious organisms; especially when detecting extremely small numbers of infectious organisms and for detecting certain viruses and bacteria that are difficult to diagnose by other methods.

  • Microalbuminuria refers to the presence of very small amounts of albumin in urine. It may indicate underlying health problems and is sometimes an early warning sign of primary kidney disease. Many conditions can potentially lead to microalbuminuria (e.g., dental disease, chronic skin disease, feline leukemia virus, feline immunodeficiency virus, diabetes mellitus, hyperthyroidism, hypertension, and cancer). A simple test, early renal damage test (ERD), may be used to detect microlbuminuria. A small amount of urine collected in a sterile container to run this test. Microalbuminuria does not mean that your pet has serious kidney disease, and your veterinarian will recommend further testing to look for hidden disease if microalbuminuria is detected.

  • An electrocardiogram, or ECG, is a test that is used to assess the heart. More specifically, an ECG measures the transmission of an electrical impulse through the heart. This test is not painful and is typically performed as an outpatient procedure. Analyzing the electrical impulses produced as the heart beats can help identify a number of different abnormalities within the heart.

  • A fecal Baermann is a specialized test for detecting certain types of parasites or “worms.”

  • A fecal flotation is a screening test for internal parasites. It is performed by mixing a small sample of stool with a special solution that causes any parasite eggs to float to the surface of the solution. These are transferred to a glass slide an examined under a microscope. Young pets need multiple fecal flotations to screen for infection, while adults may only need a fecal screening once yearly unless they are at higher risk of infection. The test may have false negatives if the parasites are not yet producing eggs, if there are too few eggs produced, if the eggs are produced sporadically, or if the parasite species are not amenable to diagnosis by fecal flotation.

  • “Fecal occult blood” refers to the presence of small quantities of blood in the stool that cannot be seen with the naked eye (“occult” means “concealed from view”). The blood can come from anywhere in the digestive tract, including the mouth, stomach, intestines or rectum.

  • FIP is a disease caused by a mutated (changed) strain of feline coronavirus. Unfortunately, routine blood testing for feline coronavirus is not clinically useful. Exposure to any strain of feline coronavirus will result in an immune response and the production of antibodies. A working diagnosis of FIP is typically made on the basis of the cat's clinical history, as well as supportive laboratory data. Histopathology remains the best way to diagnose FIP in the living cat.

  • Cytology is the microscopic examination of cells that have been collected from body tissues. Fine needle aspiration (FNA), also called fine needle biopsy, is the most frequently used technique in cytology. It is typically used to sample lumps and bumps on the body; however, it is also used to evaluate internal organs and body fluids. A sterile fine gauge needle is attached to an empty syringe and is introduced into the tissue. The tissue cells or fluid are aspirated when the plunger of the syringe is drawn back while the needle is held in the tissue. The cells are placed onto a clean glass slide, dried, and stained with special dyes. The cells are then examined under a microscope. Cytology by FNA does not always provide a diagnosis but contributes valuable information that ultimately leads to a final diagnosis.

  • Flow cytometry is a laboratory technique that can be used for counting, examining, and sorting cells. The technology to perform flow cytometry is often incorporated into automated laboratory equipment such as hematology analyzers.

  • Gastrointestinal endoscopy uses a flexible tube with a camera or viewing port to inspect the esophagus, stomach, proximal small intestine, or colon for evidence of disease-causing clinical signs characteristic of gastrointestinal disease. Foreign bodies can often be retrieved. Biopsies are taken of abnormal and normal tissue, as not all conditions cause gross changes to the stomach or intestinal surface. The endoscope cannot reach all areas of the small intestine, so other tests may be needed to diagnose disease in this area. Endoscopic pinch biopsies are not full thickness so if diagnosis is not achieved with endoscopic biopsies, additional testing including surgical biopsies may be needed. 12-18 hours fasting and enemas are required prior to endoscopy depending on the area being studied.



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